Caractérisation physicochimique et microbiologique des eaux de la vallée d’El Oueldja- Khenchela- et leur impact sur l’environnement

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Abbes Laghrour University- Khenchela
his work has been carried out at the southern side of the Tabouant anticlinal in El Ouldja valley in the Aures, east of Algeria. The different water tables exploited belong to many lithological entities (Evaporitic and carbonated). The combination of geology and statistics has allowed to study the chemistry origin of these waters. This is water of evaporitic and secondarily carbonates origin. The phenomena causing this class are numerous and are essentially linked to the aquifers chemical composition. This research project comes to shed more light on the way the aquifer system works, i.e its boundary conditions, influence of the lithological parameters and the hydrodynamic and physicochemical Parameters. The chemical quality of water is poor resulting from the strong salinity influenced by the lithology ofthe aquifer and the climatic factors (precipitations and the temperatures). From the bacteriological point of view, the results obtained show the absence of any pollution indicator germs such as total and fecal coliforms, fecal Streptococci and Clostridium sulphito-reducers, with a low total germs rate which remains in Algerian standards. The results obtained prove the good bacteriological quality of the aforementioned waters. It does not present any danger for bacteriological human consumption. Thermodynamic analysis indicated the waters saturation with carbonates, calcite and dolomite, because of the degassing and the 𝐶𝑂 dissolution of evolutive formations, gypsum and halite. The crossed binary diagrams suggest that water salination might be attributed to water-rock interaction through the geochemical process of mineral dissolution, precipitation and ions exchange. 2 The hydrochemical tool of thermal waters indicates the sources TAMARSITE 1 and 2 are hyperthermal waters, alkaline, superficial, mainly bicarbonate sodium and secondarily calcium sulphate, mild, moderately ionized probably of karst origin. The bacteriological analyzes of the source TAMERSITE2 show the high growth rate of total coliforms, coliforms Fecal and faecal streptococci, so there is a bacteriological pollution, unlike the source of TAMERSITE 01 or its bacteriological quality.