Study of the Optimal Composition of the Bath on Nucleation and Growth of Ni-Fe Alloy Thin Films

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A step-down converter-based solar system was designed to reduce and stabilize voltage through adjustable PWM control. To power different loads, we applied a constant voltage to charge the battery throughout the charging time and with good efficiency, even if the solar panel was subjected to shadows or other disturbances. We created a platform to connect photovoltaic (PV) modules to the loads via a DC-DC buck converter with a voltage of up to 38 V and a maximum current of 5 A with a power of 75 W, as well as the voltage at the output up to 36 V. Our results are that we can use three solar panels and attach them to the platform, then place the battery as a load, fix the value of PWM on the converter, and make various measurements on a normal day and a disturbance day. We created an embedded system based on the Arduino ATmega328p microcontroller and sensors to measure different parameters such as voltage, current, power, temperature and monitor the voltage value on the load. Also, an algorithm was implemented in the processor to measure different instantaneous parameters, including the panel values (Vpv, Ipv, Ppv), as well as the buck parameters (Vo, Io, Po) using current sensors and tension. This work makes it possible to monitor various instantaneous electrical quantities at the panel and load levels and to acquire real-time data for various parameters, also connect the platform to a computer via a serial port to send data and save it using a microcontroller, and then read the data into a PLX-DAQ spreadsheet