Investigation of Photoprotective, Anti-Inflammatory, Antioxidant Capacities and LC–ESI–MS Phenolic Profile of Astragalus gombiformis Pomel

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Plant-derived compounds have recently been gaining popularity as skincare factors due to their ability to absorb ultraviolet radiations and their anti-inflammatory, and antioxidant properties. In this light, this work aimed to evaluate in vitro the pharmacological activities of the butanolic extract prepared from the aerial parts of Astragalus gombiformis Pomel, an endemic species to southern Algeria. The sun protection factor was used to assess the photoprotective effect (SPF), the protein denaturation method to determine the anti-inflammatory activity, and brine shrimp nauplii and OxHLIA assay, respectively, to assess the cytotoxicity and antioxidant capacity of A. gombiformis. In addition, LC–ESI–MS analysis was employed for the characterization of the phenolic constituents of A. gombiformis. The results showed that A. gombiformis had high capacity for absorbing UV radiations with an SPF of 37.78 0.85 and significant anti-inflammatory activity with a percentage inhibition of 75.38% which is close to that of diclofenac and ketoprofen. In addition, A. gombiformis was found to have effective cytotoxicity against Artemia nauplii with a DC50 value of about 44.7 g/mL, but a weak hemolytic effect against human erythrocytes. LC–ESI–MS results detected the presence of 17 phenolic compounds with a predominance of cirsiliol, silymarin, quercitrin (quercetin-3-Orhamnoside), and kaempferol. Taken together, these results suggest that A. gombiformis extract could be used as a skincare agent in cosmetic formulations, providing excellent antioxidant and anti-inflammatory protection, allowing the treatment of skin conditions, as well as a pharmaceutical agent with multidimensional applications.