Enhancement of Titanium nitride-specific capacitance using rapid thermal sulfurization

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Journal of Materials Engineering and Performance
The present study examines the effects of thermal sulfurization on enhancing the electrochemical storage capabilities of titanium nitride (TiN) as a potential electrode material for electrochemical capacitors. The thermal sulfurization process was carried out at various temperatures (350, 500, and 650 °C). The XPS analysis approved the effects of this process in the incorporation of sulfur into the surface and subsurface regions of the electrodes. Importantly, compared to untreated pristine TiN film, the sulfurized TiN electrode exhibited a notable improvement in areal capacitance. Specifically, the sulfurized TiN electrode achieved an impressive areal capacitance of up to 15 mF cm−2 when tested at a scan rate of 5 mV s−1 (equivalent to a volumetric capacitance of 350 F cm−3) in a 1 M KOH electrolyte solution. Furthermore, it demonstrated high cycle stability, retaining 96% of its capacitance over 10,000 consecutive cycles. The study also delved into the surface chemistry and morphology of the electrodes before and after sulfurization, establishing a correlation with the electrochemical properties of these electrodes. These findings suggest that sulfur doping in transition metal nitrides holds promise as a viable strategy for developing high-performance materials for electrochemical energy storage applications.