Static buckling analysis of bi-directional functionally graded sandwich (BFGSW) beams with two different boundary conditions

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This paper presents the mechanical buckling of bi-directional functionally graded sandwich beams (BFGSW) with various boundary conditions employing a quasi-3D beam theory, including an integral term in the displacement field, which reduces the number of unknowns and governing equations. The beams are composed of three layers. The core is made from two constituents and varies across the thickness; however, the covering layers of the beams are made of bidirectional functionally graded material (BFGSW) and vary smoothly along the beam length and thickness directions. The power gradation model is considered to estimate the variation of material properties. The used formulation reflects the transverse shear effect and uses only three variables without including the correction factor used in the first shear deformation theory (FSDT) proposed by Timoshenko. The principle of virtual forces is used to obtain stability equations. Moreover, the impacts of the control of the power-law index, layer thickness ratio, length-to-depth ratio, and boundary conditions on buckling response are demonstrated. Our contribution in the present work is applying an analytical solution to investigate the stability behavior of bidirectional FG sandwich beams under various boundary