Investigating the Use of Stream of Consciousness in the Selected Short Stories Eveline and The Sisters from James Joyce’s Dubliners

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Abstract James Joyce is a representative figure of modernist literature, known for the use of stream of consciousness technique. His works were marked by innovative and varied employment of this modernist technique. This dissertation delved into the psychoanalytic perspective of James Joyce's short stories "Eveline" and "The Sisters" from his collection Dubliners, focusing on the implementation of the stream of consciousness technique. Through an examination of Joyce's narrative structure and stylistic elements, this study explored how the interplay of internal monologue, free association, free indirect style, and focalization portrayed the characters' psychological states and unveiled their unconscious desires and conflicts. Following psychoanalytic theories, this analysis focused on the characters' internal landscapes and their intricate connections with repressed memories, desires, and traumas. The stream of consciousness technique served as a literary device that provided direct insight into the characters' thoughts, enabling readers to access their unconscious processes and psychological struggles. By exploring Eveline's internal monologue and the fragmented memories presented in The Sisters, this study delved into the characters' subconscious realms and examined how their thoughts were shaped by external circumstances and internal dilemmas. Moreover, this dissertation investigated the role of free association in the narrative flow and the association of ideas, contributing to the characters' psychological exploration. The use of free indirect style in representing the characters' thoughts and emotions added complexity to their psyches, allowing readers to discern the intricate interplay between conscious and unconscious elements within their minds. Additionally, the analysis explored the impact of grammar on the stream of consciousness technique, highlighting how Joyce's unconventional syntax and punctuation choices enhance the portrayal of the characters' mental processes and emotional turmoil. Furthermore, this study emphasized the role of focalization in the stream of consciousness technique, showcasing how the characters' subjective perspectives and focal points shape their narratives. By closely examining the relationship between the characters' internal experiences and their external realities, this dissertation uncovered the psychological implications of Joyce's use of focalization within the stream of consciousness technique.