Antimicrobial Resistance Profiles and Molecular Characterisation of Vancomycin Resistance Genes in Enterococcus spp in Algeria

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Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research
ABSTRACT Introduction: The vanA gene continues to spread throughout the world. Algeria does not seem to be spared, but the data, which remain sporadic, are also old. This has justified the overriding interest in exploring the current state of antibiotic resistance in Enterococci, while focusing on the presence of certain genes. Aim: To study the isolation frequency and the level of antibiotic resistance of Enterococcus faecalis (E. faecalis) and Enterococcus faecium (E. faecium) isolated during two years at the Tlemcen Hospital (northwest Algeria), while investigating the possible presence of Vancomycin Resistant Enterococci (VRE). Materials and Methods: The present study was a prospective study in which Enterococcus spp was isolated from five different departments which were identified and confirmed by molecular identification with ‘tuf’ gene. Antibiotic sensitivity was done by the agar diffusion and Minimum Inhibitory Concentration (MIC) method. The vancomycin resistance genes (van A, van B) were researched by Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) and then sequenced by the Genoscreen laboratory in Lille (France). SPSS software version 20 (IBM Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS) statistics 20) was used to analyse the data obtained from the study. Results: The PCR of the “tuf” gene revealed two predominant species E. faecalis and E. faecium. All isolates have a multidrug resistance, two E. faecium were distinguished by their resistance to vancomycin with MICs >256 μg/mL. At the origin of this resistance, the vanA gene was characterised and sequenced; the obtained sequence has been introduced into the Genbank National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI) database. Conclusion: This work revealed alarming levels of antibiotic resistance in Enterococci, the vanA gene was found in two E. faecium; sequencing of this gene has revealed a total homology with another isolated in Cuba, which demonstrates a worldwide spread of this resistance gene