Investigation des propriétés antimicrobiennes de l'huile essentielle d'une plante médicinale de la pharmacopée traditionnelle Origanum majorana L.

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Abbes LaghrourUniversity,Khenchela
Abstract The aim of this study was to analyze the antimicrobial effect of the essential oil of an aromatic and medicinal plant from the Algerian flora, Origanum majorana L., on 4 reference bacterial strains, 18 strains of hospital origin, and 2 fungi. Extraction of the essential oil from the aerial part of dry marjoram by hydrodistillation gave a very low yield of 0.10%. As for antibacterial efficacy using the disk diffusion method, all the reference strains tested showed sensitivity to the EO, with extreme inhibitory activity on Staphylococcus aureus, reflected by an inhibition zone diameter of 26 mm. The essential oil showed varied antibacterial properties on the 18 Gram-negative clinical strains tested, 37% of which were multi-drug resistant, with high inhibitory activity on Escherichia coli and Proteus spp. However, E. coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Enterobacter spp. showed high sensitivity to the aromatogram. Using the liquid dilution method and the solid dilution method, MICs ranged from 16 to 50 mg/ml and from 20 to 100 mg/ml, respectively. The results of the BMC determination showed that the essential oil studied has bactericidal action against 99% of the strains tested. Qualitative analysis of antifungal activity revealed that the essential oil had significant antifungal activity against the fungi Aspergillus niger and Candida albicans. In conclusion, the essential oil derived from Origanum majorana L. possesses exceptional bactericidal and antifungal activity. As such, it can be a natural resource and an excellent alternative to antibiotics for combating bacterial and fungal infections.