In vitro Antioxidant, anti-Alzheimer and Antibacterial Activities of Ethyl acetate and n-Butanol Fractions of Punica granatum Peel from Algeria

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Tropical Journal of Natural Product Research
Abstract Plants constitute a potential source of high-value compounds which can provide a new source of bioactive agents. The present study was carried out to investigate the content of phenolic compounds, the antioxidant, anticholinesterase and antibacterial activities of the peels of pomegranate collected in eastern Algeria. The hydro-ethanolic extract of pomegranate peels was fractionated, then the ethyl acetate and n-butanol fractions were evaluated for their biological activities. DPPH, ABTS, CUPRAC, phenanthroline and reducing power assays were used to evaluate the antioxidant capacity. The enzyme inhibitory activity of the fractions was evaluated against key enzymes in Alzheimer's disease: acetylcholinesterase and butyrylcholinesterase. Moreover, the antibacterial activity of fractions was tested against four bacterial strains: Escherichia coli (ATCC 25922), Bacillus cereus (ATCC 10876), Pseudomonas aeruginosa (ATCC 27853) and Staphylococcus aureus (ATCC 25923). The results demonstrated that the fractions were a good source of phenolics, flavonoids, flavonols and tannins. Furthermore, the extracts showed the highest antioxidant activity than the standards. The extracts exhibited an interesting inhibitory effect against the tested enzymes. The ethyl acetate fraction showed the highest activity against acetylcholinesterase (IC50: 76.51±3.32 μg/mL) while the n-butanol fraction showed the highest activity against butyrylcholinesterase (IC50: 119.15±5.87 μg/mL). Furthermore, the fractions showed promising antibacterial effects against Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus cereus and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. The results showed that pomegranate peels could be considered a good source of bioactive compounds with potent scavenging activity and reducing ability. In addition, pomegranate peels showed great potential as antibacterial and antineurodegenerative agents.