Antimicrobial, antibiofilm, anti-quorum sensing and motility inhibition activities of essential oil from seeds of food spice Xylopia aethiopica (Dunal) A. Rich. on some pathogenic bacteria

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Research Journal of Biotechnology
Abstract Medicinal food excipients can be used to combat microbial infections especially essential oils. Xylopia aethiopica (Dunal) A. Rich is a highly consumed medicinal food spice in Africa and its seeds essential oil was extracted by hydro-distillation and characterized by GC-FID and GC-MS. Its antimicrobial, anti-biofilm, anti-motility and quorum sensing inhibition potentials were evaluated on some pathogenic microorganisms. The identified compounds were grouped as oxygenated monoterpenes (57.06%) and monoterpenes hydrocarbons (28.96%) as major components while sesquiterpene hydrocarbons (5.94%), oxygenated sesquiterpenes (2.29%) and diterpenes (1.79%) where minor constituents. The most abundant constituent in the essential oil is myrtenol (13.25%), an oxygenated monoterpene. The most sensitive gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria were S. aureus and P. aeruginosa respectively with MIC values of 0.3125 μg/mL while the yeast C. albicans showed MIC of 0.625 μg/mL. Good antibiofilm results were found with highest inhibition percentage in S. aureus varying from 73.0±3.0 at MIC to 9.0±0.5 % at MIC/32. Biofilm inhibitions were higher in gram-positive bacteria than for gramnegative and yeast. Highest motility inhibitions were 45.32±0.10 and 63.84±3.50% in swimming and swarming models respectively at dose of 100 μg/mL. The essential oil of X. aethiopica showed good antiquorum sensing activity with quorum-sensing inhibition zones of 22.0±0.5 mm at MIC. The good results show that consumption of X. aethiopica is potent biocontrol means to reduce severity and virulence of food pathogens and to reduce their resistance to antibiotics which is a global health problem